Etiket arşivi: Talmud

Şiddet 31 | Eski İsrail’de Kadının Konumu 1

Eski Mezopotamya mitolojisinde düzen ve düzensizlik cinsiyet temelli bir anlatıma dayanır. Enuma Eliş Destanı’nda eril Apsu tatlı suları ve düzeni temsil ederken, dişi Tiamat acı suları ve düzensizliği/kaosu temsil eder. 14. İstanbul Bienali’nde Merve Kılıçer’in (1987-) hazırladığı Tiamat Kitabı, bir metre uzunluğunda çinko bir plaka üzerine, asit ve kuru kazı teknikleri ile hazırlanmıştır. Yeryüzü’nün Tiamat’ın parçalara ayrılmış bedeninden doğduğunu anlatan bu mit, yıkım ve yeniden yaratılış kavramlarına odaklanan fantastik ve renkli imgeler sunar. Fotoğraf: Füsun Kavrakoğlu

Eski Mezopotamya mitolojisinde düzen ve düzensizlik cinsiyet temelli bir anlatıma dayanır. Enuma Eliş Destanı’nda eril Apsu tatlı suları ve düzeni temsil ederken, dişi Tiamat acı suları ve düzensizliği/kaosu temsil eder.
14. İstanbul Bienali’nde Merve Kılıçer’in (1987-) hazırladığı Tiamat Kitabı, bir metre uzunluğunda çinko bir plaka üzerine, asit ve kuru kazı teknikleri ile hazırlanmıştır. Yeryüzü’nün Tiamat’ın parçalara ayrılmış bedeninden doğduğunu anlatan bu mit, yıkım ve yeniden yaratılış kavramlarına odaklanan fantastik ve renkli imgeler sunar.
Fotoğraf: Füsun Kavrakoğlu

 

  • Mezopotamya’da Sümer, Akad, Asur ve Babil devletlerinde ve Ön Asya’da Eskiçağ aile hukuku çerçevesinde kadının konumu evlenme, boşanma ve miras konularında benzer kurallar ile belirlenmiştir. Benzerliğin sebebi ataerkillik kavramının tüm zamanların ve toplumların değişmez doktrini olmasıdır. Ataerkil düzende kadınların konumları önce babaları ya da erkek kardeşleri sonra da kocaları tarafından belirlenir.
  • Eski Yakındoğu toplumlarına benzer olarak antik İsrail ailelerinde endogami (aynı sosyal grup içinden evlenme), baba soylu, ataerkil, baba evi merkezli, sülaleci, çok eşli olma gibi benzer özellikler görülmektedir.
  • İsrail’de Krallık öncesindeki dönemi kapsayan atalar dönemi kadının konumu ile krallığın kurulmasından sonraki dönemde kadının konumu arasında fark vardır.
  • Tarihi devirler içerisinde yaygın bir iktidar biçimi olan ataerkillik Eski Ahit’in de vurguladığı bir iktidar yöntemidir. Antik İsrail’de kadın söz konusu olduğunda Eski Ahit içerisinde farklı görüşlere ait izler vardır. Bu farkların, Eski Ahit içinde yer alan metinlerin farklı zamanlarda, farklı yazmanlarca derlenmesinden ötürü olayların farklı yorumlanmasına yol açtığı düşünülüyor.
  • Çıkış Kitabı’na göre kadının yaratılış amacı erkeğe yardımcı olmaktır. Yahvist metne göre Tanrı topraktan erkeği yaratırken, Talmud’a göre insanı kendi suretinde erkek ve dişi olarak yaratmıştır. İlk günah sonrası kadına erkek tarafından ad verilmesi ile erkek ile kadın arasındaki eşitlik tamamen yok olmuştur. Bundan sonra kadın ailede erkeğin en büyük yardımcısıdır. Musevi metinlerinde Tanrı ilk olarak Adem’i yaratmış, Havva’yı çok sonra, Adem’e yardımcı olarak, onun kaburga kemiğinden yaratmıştır.
  • Eski Ahit’te kadının pek çok imajı vardır: eş, anne, kız çocuk ve ata (Sara, Rebeka, Hana, Rut); peygamber (Debora, Hulda); kurtarıcı (Ester, Rahav, Abigail); ana kraliçe (İzabel, Atalya); kahraman (Yael); komplocu (Naomi) gibi.
  • Antik İsrail’de otorite, kendisinden sonraki varisi belirleyen babadır. Eski Ahit’e göre dünya, herkesin ve her şeyin yerinin kesin kurallara göre belirlendiği hiyerarşik bir düzendedir. Devletin bir kralı, köyün yaşlıları, kabilelerin şefleri ve her hanenin de erkek bir lideri vardır. Herkesin liderin emirlerine uyması gerekir. Eski İsrailli kendini baba evinin ferdi olarak tanımlar.
  • Sürüler ailelerin mülkü iken, otlaklar topluma aitti. Kadın önce babasının, evlendikten sonra da kocasının mülkü sayılırdı.

 

İnanç Dosyası 43 | Judaism 11

It is thought that a belief in angels is a relic of Babylonian and Hellenistic philosophy from the time when Jews were under its influence while in exile in Babylonia. Angels have various functions; for instance, Michael is the Jewish angel who protects, and death is believed to occur when the Angel of Death strikes with his sword. There are good angels, but also evil ones, whose leader is Satan, and Jewish mysticism refers to both.

Jews believe that the Torah, that is all of the first five Books of the Old Testament, was God’s revelation. Research into texts and history indicates that the oldest texts in the Torah were composed in the 13th century BCE, and took their final form in the 6th century BCE, while the last texts were compiled in the 2nd century CE. These scriptures were regarded as the Word of God, and the affiliation of the Tanach was proclaimed by Rabbis in the year 70 CE.

Moses is acknowledged to be the greatest of all the Prophets. The writings of other great prophets are contained in the Old Testament.

In the Torah, there is no mention of the immortality of the soul, life after death, judgement, or heaven and hell, which are concepts thought to have arisen under the influence of Zoroastrians. Originally the belief was that after death, both good and evil people would go to a place called Sheol, the abode of the dead. Later, however, the belief emerged that Yahveh gave rewards and punishments in both this world and the next. Eden was the name given for Heaven and Gehenna for Hell. In the Talmud particularly, heaven and hell are frequently written of. On the return of the Messiah, the dead would be resurrected, the evil thrown into torment, and the good transported to eternal bliss in heaven. There is a belief among Jews within Indian cultural environs, that a spirit passes from one body to another and another, not finding rest until at last, all sins are paid for. Pythagoras, the Ancient Greek philosopher and mathematician also believed this, as do Buddhists and also Kabbalists.

At the synagogue during weekday morning service, a Jew is attaching his tephillin, a box which contains passages from the Torah, to his forehead. There are writings in Hebrew on the collar of his tallith.

At the synagogue during weekday morning service, a Jew is attaching his tephillin, a box which contains passages from the Torah, to his forehead. There are writings in Hebrew on the collar of his tallith.

Judaism harbours the idea that there is a “Realm of God“, where no personal and social injustices exist. This Realm would be established through the guidance of God, with the help of man, the Messiah. Among Zoroastrians there is belief in the ‘Son of Man’ who comes as a saviour.  Jewish belief in the Messiah is thought to have arisen during the Jews’ exile and captivity in Babylonia.  Originally, the saviour was expected to be a king of David’s line, but later developed into the concept of the mystic Messiah. Maimonides, who denied the supernatural powers of the Messiah, but claimed that he came only to implement the Body of Laws, also opposed the Christian belief in Jesus Christ as the Messiah. Faith in the Messiah was a source of hope and comfort to Jews during their hard times and helped them to overcome their difficulties. Various so-called Messiahs have made their appearances from time to time, the most famous of whom was Shabbetai Zevi, who proclaimed himself to be the Messiah in 1665, but whose movement disintegrated when later he was converted to Islam.

The Sabbath is the only day of the week to be given a name in Hebrew: the others are just called the first, second and so on, the Sabbath being the seventh. This holy day of rest in reckoned from sunset on Friday to sunset on Saturday, since Jews count the days from evening to evening. On Fridays, enough food for two days is prepared because on Saturdays no cooking is done, lights or fires are not lit, tools are not used and animals are not made to work. Eastern Jews usually eat fish on the Sabbath. Bread and wine are the two most important items of the Sabbath Day service, as symbols of the fertility of the soil, and these two elements were among the offerings made in the Temple. Sabbath Day rites are performed to commemorate Creation and in memory of the flight of the Children of Israel out of Egypt. The ceremony at home commences at sunset and when prayers and chants have been said, food is served. Service in the synagogue takes place on Saturday morning. The State of Israel keeps the Sabbath as an official holiday.

In Judaism, nothing can intervene between God and His servant, no one can forgive sins, nor worship on behalf of another. After the destruction of Jerusalem, Judaism recognised no hereditary privilege or class, and every member of the community is equal. When the Temple no longer existed, the custom of slaughtering animals for sacrifice, once part of worship, was discontinued.

İnanç Dosyası 42 | Judaism 10

At the beginning of the 19th century in the USA and Western Europe, there was a desire in some quarters to modernise Jewish tradition to make it more in keeping with contemporary life. By then, “Reform”, “Liberal”, “Conservative”, and “Orthodox” are the important forms of Judaism. In recent years Reformists have ordained women as rabbis. The first woman rabbi ordained was in Great Britain.  The Orthodox completely rejects the movement.

The State of Israel officially took to Orthodoxy, which affirms that the Torah, the Talmud and the Mishnah are categorically unalterable.

The One Supreme God of Judaism is the God worshipped by the Children of Israel, thus differentiating themselves from polytheism and also the Trinity of Christian belief. God created the universe and should He relinquish His hold upon it, the universe would cease to exist in that instant. Judaism links both the creation and the continued existence of the world to the activities of God.

Jews believe, not in predestination, but in the idea that everything that happens is what God has planned with a definite purpose in mind. Judaism believes, as does Islam, that all good and all evil come from God. The Christian belief that evil comes from Satan has no place in Jewish doctrine. The Jewish concept of Satan arose in the 6th century BCE, when the Jews were exiled and in captivity in Babylonia, but is not held with much conviction. God is omnipotent and omnipresent. He is supernatural, far above mankind, but close enough to be concerned with every individual. God is omniscient and knows man’s most secret thoughts. The living God has no beginning and no end; Islam also describes God as living, self-creating and self-perpetuating. God is just, and if He punishes a person or a nation, it is as fair retribution for committed sins. The Torah quotes many instances where man cannot be forgiven either for turning away from Yahveh or for violating His laws. Also, when misfortune afflicted the good, it was considered as God’s way of testing them. This subject is dealt with in the Old Testament’s Book of Job, and is one of the world’s greatest pieces of literature, thought to have been written in the 6th century BCE. In the three Abrahamic religions, of Jewry, Christianity and Islam, Job is an example of patience and uncomplaining submission in the face of all the calamities God sent to try him.

Praying at the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem, a custom maintained for centuries, is the symbol of hope for the Jewish people to return from exile. From 1948-67, the Wall was in the sector controlled by Jordan; so Jewish people were unable to pray there. But after the 'Six-day War', the Jews recovered control of the Wall. This was a joyous occasion and a date to remember in Jewish history.

Praying at the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem, a custom maintained for centuries, is the symbol of hope for the Jewish people to return from exile. From 1948-67, the Wall was in the sector controlled by Jordan; so Jewish people were unable to pray there. But after the ‘Six-day War’, the Jews recovered control of the Wall. This was a joyous occasion and a date to remember in Jewish history.

İnanç Dosyası 38 | Judaism 6

The Jews’ greatest philosopher, who wished to synthesize the traditional faith with philosophic teaching, was Maimonides, (1135- 1204), who was the master of rabbinic literature. Maimonides was an Aristotelian. According to him, no one except the prophets came closer to the truth than Aristotle. He believed that religion and philosophy, faith and intellect could be reconciled, and maintained that, where they conflict, the intellect must be recognised as superior.

He rejected every idea of predetermination, and insisted on the principle of free will. He put forward the main articles of the Jewish faith which were as follows: Belief in God the Creator, Belief in His unity, Belief in His incorporeality, Belief in His eternity, Belief that worship is due to Him alone, Belief in the words of the prophets, Belief in the superiority of the prophet Moses, Belief in the revelation of the Torah to Moses at Sinai, Belief that the Torah is immutable, Belief that God is omniscient, Belief in reward for good, and punishment for evil deeds in this world and the next, Belief in the coming of the Messiah, and Belief in the resurrection of the dead.

After the conversion of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine to Christianity in 337, the localities occupied by Jews were placed under the authority of the Church. Christianity’s most serious imputation against Jewry was that it was the Jews who had crucified Jesus Christ. A number of prohibitions against Jews came into force, in that they were forbidden to attempt to convert anyone to their faith, marry anyone outside their faith, build or repair synagogues, hold office in the civil service, employ a Christian slave or take a Christian into business partnership. The Jews were expelled from Spain in 613, from France in 629, from England in 1290, and again from France in 1394 and Spain in 1492. The Jews lived apart in ghettos, separate districts sometimes surrounded by walls, and they were obliged to put a special sign on their clothes and their houses. In these closed environments, Jewish communities became increasingly introverted and were inclined to join mystic movements.

Jerusalem – Jewish Quarter, in one of the Mount Zion complex of buildings.

Jerusalem – Jewish Quarter, in one of the Mount Zion complex of buildings.

Total participation in the Islamic community was reserved for Muslims only. For those like Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians, only second class civil rights were granted. In order to ensure physical protection and freedom of worship, they had to submit to certain restrictions, such as being obliged to wear distinctive clothing, and not attempting to change anyone else’s religion, and they also had to pay additional taxes. In the Prophet Mohammed’s time, (570-632), the majority of the population of Medina was Jewish. In a war waged at this time, the Jews were defeated and were forced to pay tribute. During the Abbasid Dynasty (750-1055), the rabbinical leadership and Jewish law-courts continued to carry out their functions. In the Egyptian Fatimids and Ayyubids, and in the Omayyad Dynasty in Andalucia, separatist legislation was implemented humanely on the whole. To some extent Jews took part in the administration, although they experienced violence arising from religious teachings. In 1066, a massacre took place in Granada, and the Caliphat of the Fatimids persecuted the Jews, and in the late 11th century in Morocco and Southern Spain, they were forced to convert to Islam. In the 13th century Ayyubids forced them to wear discriminatory clothing. Again in 13th century Iraq and in 15th century Morocco, massacres took place. In Morocco, confinement of the Jews to separate districts (mellah), like the ghettos in Christian society, was designed to inflict an insulting kind of banishment upon the Jewish community. After 1492, there was mass emigration to Islamic countries.

From the 13th century onwards, the genetic term for Jewish mystical movements is Kabbalah, meaning tradition. The Kabbalah seeks the esoteric meaning of the Old Testament, imparting supernatural powers and meanings to the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Just as the Arabic alphabet awards a numerical value to each letter, (numeration by letters), such is the case with the Hebrew alphabet. This numerical mysticism confers the gift of soothsaying, spell and magic-making with letters and numbers. The life of the Jews in Babylonia, (today’s Iraq and Iran) nurtured the concepts of angels and demons, heaven and hell, and the vision of the Messiah, who was, for both mystics and devotees of the Law, one of the most important points at issue. The origin of the Kabbalah arguably dates back to the mystic movements of the 1st century CE and is thought to have been influenced by Arab-Andalusian culture. According to the Kabbalists, the truth lies not in the words, but in the letters of the Holy Scriptures, and the Creator and the Holy Book are one and the same. The richest literature concerning the Kabbalah is found around 1200 in Spain and Provence, France. The Kabbalists’ classic book is the Zohar, composed by Leon of Granada in the 13th century. It stressed that all human actions affect the spiritual world and by serving God the soul can attain union with the Divine. Although the Kabbalah was to a great extent forgotten by Jews in Europe after the 18th century, for those living outside Europe it maintained its importance. Some of the Jews expelled from Spain in 1492 fled through Italy and took refuge in the lands of the Ottoman Empire. The Sephardim preserved and spread the Jewish mystic movements. Others who managed to escape from Spain travelled first to France and from there to Germany and eastward to Poland and Russia, taking the Kabbalah with them. In the 17th century, the Cossacks demolished the synagogues and put the Jews to the sword. Now the only source of consolation left to them was to await the return of the Messiah.

In the 8th Century, the Karaite sect arose, which denied the validity of the Talmud and the Mishnah, but upheld belief in the Holy Book, taking a literalist view of the Torah. Most of its members lived in Jerusalem, so when, in 1099, the Crusaders seized that city, the sect received a severe blow. Survivors of the massacre fled to Constantinople and from there spread their ideas to Egypt and parts of Europe. Today small groups of Karaites can be found in the Crimea, parts of Turkey and North Africa.  Ukrania – Crimea, Karaite Kenesa of Yevpatoria. ( Kenesa is the term for a Karaite synagogue).

In the 8th Century, the Karaite sect arose, which denied the validity of the Talmud and the Mishnah, but upheld belief in the Holy Book, taking a literalist view of the Torah. Most of its members lived in Jerusalem, so when, in 1099, the Crusaders seized that city, the sect received a severe blow. Survivors of the massacre fled to Constantinople and from there spread their ideas to Egypt and parts of Europe. Today small groups of Karaites can be found in the Crimea, parts of Turkey and North Africa.
Ukrania – Crimea, Karaite Kenesa of Yevpatoria. (Kenesa is the term for a Karaite synagogue).