Etiket arşivi: Lviv

Şiddet 33 | Eski İsrail’de Kadının Konumu 3

Ukrayna’nın Lviv kentindeki Hasidik Sinagogu’ndan. Bu dindar kesimin üyeleri genelde erken yaşta ve çöpçatan aracılığıyla evleniyor ve düğün öncesi birbirlerini tanıma fırsatını pek bulamıyorlar. Evli kadınlar saçlarını göstermiyorlar. Fotoğraf: Füsun Kavrakoğlu

Ukrayna’nın Lviv kentindeki Hasidik Sinagogu’ndan.
Bu dindar kesimin üyeleri genelde erken yaşta ve çöpçatan aracılığıyla evleniyor ve düğün öncesi birbirlerini tanıma fırsatını pek bulamıyorlar. Evli kadınlar saçlarını göstermiyorlar.
Fotoğraf: Füsun Kavrakoğlu

  • Çokeşliliğin yaygın olduğu Mezopotamya’da Babil Yahudileri de çokeşli; tekeşliliğin geçerli olduğu Roma İmparatorluğu’nda yaşayan Yahudiler ise tekeşli yaşam sürmüşlerdir. Hahamlar, Tevrat’ta her iki duruma da cevaz veren ayetler bulmuşlardır.
  • Pers İmparatorluğu sınırları içinde yaşayan hahamlar, meşru veya gayrı meşru doğan bütün çocuklara eşit haklar tanımıştır.
  • Doğulu hahamlar, erken evliliği daima teşvik etmiştir.
  • Çöpçatanlık, bazen hahamların da yaptığı, şerefli bir iş olarak görülür.
  • Sözleşme yolu ile teminat vermeden bir kadınla evlenmek, o kadına doğru davranmamak anlamına gelir.
  • Genç kızın çeyizi kocanın vefatı veya boşanma halinde, ihtiyat parası olarak kenara konurdu. Karısına ait diğer mallarla birlikte çeyizi de koca idare eder, bunları, kullanma hakkını saklı tutardı. En fakirlerin çeyizini ise cemaat karşılardı.
  • Cemaat içi evlilik yapmak ya da en azından Yahudi olmayan eşin din değiştirmesini sağlamak ve doğacak çocukların Yahudi dinine uygun yetişmesini sağlamak gerekir. Yahudi kadın din kurallarının evde uygulanmasını sağlayan kişidir. Yabancı kadınla evlenme, onların kendi inançlarını getirerek Yahudi inancının sarsılmasına neden olabileceği; çocukların İbranice veya Aramice yerine annelerinin dilini konuşacağı gibi sakıncalar nedeniyle yasaklanmıştır. Aynı statüden kadın almak da ekonomik kaynakların miras yoluyla azalmasına sebebiyet vereceğinden istenmez. Cemaat, arasına yeni bir aileyi kabul edecektir; bu bakımdan onun da diyecekleri vardır.
  • Eski Yunan ve Roma’nın tanımadığı bir olgu olan insanın doğuştan günahkar olduğu inancı Yahudilik ile ortaya atıldı.
  • Yine Antik Yunan ve Roma’ya tamamen yabancı olan kendi bedeninden utanç duyma, Havva’nın yasayı çiğneyerek, Tanrı’nın Bilgi Ağacı’nın meyvesini koparmaması yolundaki buyruğu çiğnemesinin ilk sonucuydu; Adem ve Havva gözlerini açmışlar, çıplak olduklarını fark etmişler ve incir yapraklarını kendilerine örtü yapmışlardır. Utanma duygusu Musevilikten Hıristiyanlığa geçmiştir.
  • Önceleri cinsel birleşmenin örtü altında, tarafların çıplak vücutlarını birbirlerine göstermeden gerçekleşmesi gerekiyordu.
  • Zebur, anneler bizleri günah işleyerek doğurdu, der.
  • Ezgiler Ezgisi hariç, Tevrat’ta cinselliğe değinen bölümler kaba, kadını ilgilendiren bölümler düşmancadır. Eski Ahit kitaplarından biri olan Vaiz Kitabı’nda “Bir elbisede güve ürer, bir kadında da kötülük,” der.
  • Tapınaktaki ayin, on erkeğin mevcudiyetini gerektirir.
  • Sinagogda kadınlarla erkeklerin bölümü ayrıdır. Reformcular, kadınları yukarı bölüme, maksure’ye, alarak cemaatten ayırmıyorlar.
  • Eski çağlarda Yahudilik çocuğa, erkekten ya da kadından gelebilirken, ilerleyen yüzyıllarda Yahudiliğin sadece kadından gelmesi esası geçerli olmuştur.

 

Çağdaş Sanata Varış 117| Heykelin Dönüşümü

  • Boşluğu tanımlama sanatı olan heykelde, Gotik döneme kadar hareket yoktur, heykel Gotik dönemin sonuna doğru hareket kazanmaya başlar.
  • Mikelanj, heykeli başlı başına bir sorun olarak ele aldı: Heykellerinde bazı yerleri cilaladı, bazı yerleri işlenmemiş bıraktı. Bazı sanat tarihçileri Mikelanj’ı ilk Modern heykeltraş olarak anar.
  • Mikelanj’dan sonra Rodin konuyu değil, taşın içindeki insanı vurgulamayı hedefledi.
  • 20. yüzyılın ilk yıllarına kadar, heykel oyma ve modelleme yapılarak yaratılıyordu ama Birinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra Pablo Picasso inşa edilen heykeller yaratmaya başladı. Bu heykeller ayrı parçaların bir araya getirilmesinden oluşuyordu. Bunu çok çeşitli formların heykel olarak nitelendirilmesi takip etti.
  • Natüralist sanat el becerisine, Modern sanat kavramlara bağlıdır.
  • Heykel sanatının sanat tarihi içinde karşılaşmış olduğu 5 temel sorunu;
    *Yeni bir form dilinin Mikelanj’dan sonra tıkanmış olması,
    *Geleneksel altlık, kaide sorunu ile hesaplaşma,
    *Yeni bir boşluk kavramı üzerine düşünme,
    *Malzeme kullanımına bağlı olarak dokusal etkiler, teknolojinin gelişmesi ile gündeme gelen endüstriyel malzeme kullanımı,
    *Heykelin içinde bulunduğu mekanla ilişkisi olarak sıralanabilir.
Ukrayna’ya gittiğimde Chernivtsi’yi gezerken sokaklarda pek çok heykel görmüş ve beğenmiştim, paylaşıyorum.

Ukrayna’ya gittiğimde Chernivtsi’yi gezerken sokaklarda pek çok heykel görmüş ve beğenmiştim, paylaşıyorum.

  • 20. yüzyıl heykelinin dinamikleri iki büyük damardan beslenir:
    *Konstrüktif Yaklaşım
    *Organik Yaklaşım.
  • Konstrüktif yaklaşımı benimseyen Vladimir Tatlin, heykelin etrafındaki boşluğu tanımlama; eserini köşeye, tavana asarak heykelin içinde bulunduğu mekanla ilişkisi üzerine düşünüyor. Diğer bir konstrüktif yaklaşımı benimseyen sanatçı Naum Gabo da Tatlin gibi  heykelin etrafındaki boşluğun da heykele ait olduğunu düşünüyor.
  • Alberto Giacometti de konstrüktif yaklaşımı benimseyen sanatçılardan.
  • Hans Arp ve Rodin’in öğrencisi Constantin Brancusi (Brankuş) için nesnenin tözü önemlidir. Brancusi, el düşünür ama malzemenin düşüncesini izler, der. Sanatçının malzemeye esir olduğuna, malzemeyi çok iyi tanımak gerektiğine inanır. Brancusi, kaideyi ayrıca tasarlar. Kaideyi de heykele dönüştürerek yok eder.
  • Organik yaklaşımı benimseyen Hans Arp’ta köşe yoktur, heykelleri hep yuvarlak hatlıdır.
  • Organik yaklaşımı benimseyen diğer bir sanatçı da Henry Moore’dur. Yuvarlak hatlı heykellerindeki boşluklar, delikler ile materyalin içine nüfuz etmeyi amaçlar, yeni bir boşluk kavrayışı getirir.
Chernivtsi’de beğendiğim 2008 yılında yapılmış bir başka heykel.

Chernivtsi’de beğendiğim 2008 yılında yapılmış bir başka heykel.

  •  Marcel Duchamp’ın 1917 yılında sergilemek istediği Çeşme adlı eser ile seri üretim ürünlerini heykel olarak sergileme fikri devrimci bir gelişmedir.
  • Antoni Gaudi ile heykel gibi binalar yapma gündeme gelmiştir..
  • İçine girilebilir (Pénétrables) üç boyutlu eserler tasarlanmıştır.
  • Yeni Gerçekçilik akımının önde gelen sanatçılarından César Baldaccini heykellerinde sıkıştırma ve genişletme tekniklerini kullanmıştır.
  • Jean Tinguely, kendi kendini yok eden heykeller yapmıştır.
  • 1930’lu yılların başında Picasso, nesneleri birbirine dönüştürmeye başladı. Bisiklet selesinin ve gidonunun biçimini hiç değiştirmeden bir boğa başı yaratması bu örneklerden biri..
  • 1930’lu yıllarda Kinetik Sanat ile heykeller hareket kazanıyor. Duvar mobilleri, ses mobilleri üretiliyor.
  • Kinetik Sanat’ta mekanik, elektronik, dönüşümlü ve titreşimli hareketlerden yararlanılır; hava, su, su buharı gibi doğal güçler de kullanılır.
  • Alexander Calder, Nicolas Schöffer, Jean Tinguely mobil heykel ile heykele hareketi ekliyor, üflemeyle, rüzgarla hareket etmeye açık mekanizmalar kuruyor.
  • Claes Oldenburg, 1957  yılında yumuşak heykel fikrini geliştirdi..
  • Minimal Sanat anlayışı kapsamına giren heykellerde, sadece en basit ve en yalın biçimlere ya tek başlarına ya da birbirlerinin peşisıra yer verildiği görülür.
  • Seri üretilmiş heykeller yapılmaya başlandı.
  • Donald Judd, 1960’ların ortasında heykel terimini reddederek eserlerini obje olarak adlandırdı.
  • Carl Andre yer heykelini geliştirdi.
  • Sol LeWitt de heykel yerine eserlerine strüktür adını verdi.
  • İnsanların solit nesnelere duyduğu saygı, sayısız modern yapıtlar ve Neo Klasik anıtlardan Piramitler’e kadar uzanır. Minimalizm, en yalın örnekleriyle açıklık ve sadelikten duyulan zevki açığa vurmaktadır.
Bu gökyüzüne tırmanan merdiven de yine Ukrayna’dan, bu defa Lviv’den.

Bu gökyüzüne tırmanan merdiven de yine Ukrayna’dan, bu defa Lviv’den.

İnanç Dosyası 68 | Christianity 19 The Resurrection

Armenian Church, paintings by J. Rosen, 1928 Ukraine – Lviv.

Armenian Church, paintings by J. Rosen, 1928.
Ukraine – Lviv.

Easter marks the commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus Christ on the third day after His death on the Cross. His disciples stated that on the third day after Christ’s death, He rose from the dead and that He appeared to them on various occasions and dwelt among them for forty days. The resurrection of Christ was the cornerstone of the ministry of St. Paul.

Jesus was crucified and buried on Friday and rose from the dead the following Sunday. Today, all Western Christians observe Easter on the same day. This falls on the first Sunday after the full moon occurring on or after the spring equinox, March 21st. Should the full moon fall on a Sunday, then Easter Day will be observed the Sunday following. This means that Easter may occur between March 22nd and April 25th. However, the Orthodox Eastern Church calculates the date in a slightly different way, so that Easter may occur one, four or five weeks later than this. Easter is a very important festival in the Christian year, around which the whole year of worship is organised. It is regarded as the Christian Passover. From earliest Christian times, Sunday, ‘little Easter”, has been kept as the weekly commemoration of Christ’s resurrection. A banner showing a red cross on a white ground, symbol of the resurrection, is often flown on Sundays from a church tower or spire. This is also the flag of Saint George, patron saint of England…

Turkey – Istanbul Fener Patriarchy, Easter 2002.

Turkey – Istanbul Fener Patriarchy, Easter 2002.

In almost all Churches, the period of Lent features as a preparation for the festival of Easter. It is a season of contrition. After Jesus was baptised by John the Baptist, and before he began His ministry, he spent an exemplary period of fasting in the desert lasting 40 days and 40 nights. In the Roman Catholic Church, this period of fasting, known as Lent, begins on Ash Wednesday, Six and a half weeks before Easter and lasts forty days, not counting Sundays. In the Orthodox Church, it begins eight weeks before Easter, and fast days do not include Saturdays and Sundays. The last week of Lent is known as Holy Week, the Friday of Holy Week, two days before Easter Day is called Good Friday, and is the day on which Christ’s crucifixion is commemorated.

The Roman Catholic Easter services include renewal of the blessing of fire by lighting Easter candles, reading lessons from the Holy Bible concerning the sacrament of baptism and celebrating Easter Mass. In the early years of Christianity, the sacrament of baptism was administered only once a year on Easter Sunday. In the Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches, Easter begins before Saturday night worship with a procession outside the church. This is followed by the sacrament of Easter communion. When the procession is leaving the church, no lights are lit, but on its return, hundreds of candles and coloured torches are lit to symbolise the splendour of Christ’s resurrection.

On returning home after midnight, eggs painted crimson are banged together in celebration of Easter Sunday. Then a rich variety of dishes are served for the mid-day meal. The spicy Easter Loaf, woven like a plait is essential to the feast. In England, small spicy round loaves, decorated with a cross, called Hot Cross Buns, are produced at Eastertide. The proper time for eating them is Good Friday. In the Lutheran church services, and in the Church of England’s Book of Common Prayer there are special liturgies for Easter. In different sects of Protestant Churches, the Easter sacrament of Communion is held on different days in Holy Week.

Ukraine –Kiev. A sculpture of ball made of eggs. In the garden of Hagia Sophia Monastery.

Ukraine –Kiev. A sculpture of ball made of eggs. In the garden of Hagia Sophia Monastery.

Among Christian communities, various folk traditions have arisen within the framework of Easter celebrations. Most of these, in the context of the theme of resurrection, stem from the ancient rites of pagan spring festival and from symbols originating in Europe and the Near East. This festival may be thought to be derived from the Sumerian legends of Tammuz or the Anatolian Attis and Agdistis and the Greek Adonis. The death and rebirth of these figures symbolised the death of the year in autumn and its rebirth in spring. Eggs, a food forbidden during Lent and later gaining great significance as the symbol of new life and rebirth, have become, when painted or decorated, the symbol of Easter. During this festival, Christians present each other with gifts of eggs or egg-shaped objects. Eggs may be painted crimson or other colours, white representing the divinity of Christ, red expressing the idea of His sacrifice shows the blood of Christ spilt for the salvation of the whole world. According to a different interpretation, the egg symbolises the world, the shell being the sky, the membrane the air, the white the seas and the yolk the earth’s surface. On the day after Easter, it is customary to visit the graves of loved ones and services of prayers for the souls of the dead are offered up around this time. The rabbit, ancient Egyptian symbol of fecundity is later adopted in Europe. Especially in North America, the Easter bunny, still a symbol of human fecundity features prominently at Eastertide.

Syrian Christians celebrate Christ’s ascension into heaven forty days after His resurrection. During the ceremonies held in their churches, the congregation dip walnut leaves into holy water that has been blessed, and sprinkle each other with it, water being the symbol of the Holy Ghost.

 

 

 

İnanç Dosyası 58 | Christianity 9 Church 1

Hagia Sophia is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture and is said to have changed the history of architecture.
The Church was dedicated to the Logos, “Shrine of the Holy Wisdom of God”. It remained the world’s largest cathedral for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520. Constructed between 532 and 537 on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian and was the third Church of the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site, the previous two having both been destroyed. It was designed by the Greek scientists Isidore of Miletus, a physicist, and Anthemius of Tralles, a mathematician. Famous in particular for its massive dome, the dome replaced in 563 after an earthquake.
Hagia Sophia is a former Greek Orthodox patriarchal basilica, later an imperial mosque, and now a museum in Istanbul, Turkey. From the date of its construction in 537 until 1453, it served as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral and seat of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, except between 1204 and 1261, when it was converted to a Roman Catholic cathedral under the Latin Empire. Following the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks under Sultan Mehmed II, the Hagia Sophia was converted into a mosque. It was used as a mosque for 482 years. It was re-opened in 1935 as a museum by the Republic of Turkey.
The church contained a large collection of holy relics and featured, among other things, a 15-metre (49 ft) silver iconostasis. The focal point of the Eastern Orthodox Church for nearly one thousand years, the building witnessed the excommunication of Patriarch Michael I Cerularius on the part of Pope Leo IX in 1054, an act which is commonly considered the start of the Great Schism.

The kings of the Zagwe dynasty (900-1270)  who is reputed to have ordered the construction of the monolithic rock-hewn churches in the northern Ethiopian city Lalibela. Abba Libanos is unique amongst the churches of Lalibela in that it is the only structure that is not free-standing. Hewn from a hillside, the roof has not been separated from the surrounding rock. According to legend constructed in just one night by angels. Ethiopia – Lalibela, Abba Libanos.

The kings of the Zagwe dynasty (900-1270) who is reputed to have ordered the construction of the monolithic rock-hewn churches in the northern Ethiopian city Lalibela. Abba Libanos is unique amongst the churches of Lalibela in that it is the only structure that is not free-standing. Hewn from a hillside, the roof has not been separated from the surrounding rock. According to legend constructed in just one night by angels.
Ethiopia – Lalibela, Abba Libanos.

Christianity attributes different meanings to the word Church. It is a building, sometimes called the House of God; it is also the community of worshippers who use the building; and it includes the assembly of believers, both living and dead. In the beginning, to distinguish the universal Church from the regional congregations, the term Catholic was used, (from the Greek Katholikos, meaning universal), and later this was identified with the Church of Rome. According to the Catholic Church, the Pope, known as the Bishop of Rome, is successor to the authority granted Saint Peter, the disciple, on whom Christ’s universal Church was built. (See Matthew 16:18). After the schism between the Western and Eastern Churches in 1054, the Catholic Church has managed to preserve its unity, but, as a result of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, the Western Church has split into many varying sects.

Santiago de Compostela Cathedral  is a Roman Catholic cathedral of the archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, Spain. The cathedral is the reputed burial-place of Saint James the Greater, one of the apostles of Jesus Christ. It is the destination of the Way of St. James, a major historical pilgrimage route since the Early Middle Ages. The building is a Romanesque structure with later Gothic and Baroque additions.

Santiago de Compostela Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral of the archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, Spain. The cathedral is the reputed burial-place of Saint James the Greater, one of the apostles of Jesus Christ. It is the destination of the Way of St. James, a major historical pilgrimage route since the Early Middle Ages. The building is a Romanesque structure with later Gothic and Baroque additions.

The infallibility of the Pope, the Immaculacy of the Virgin Mary and her ascent into heaven are part of Roman Catholic doctrine, which holds that the Holy Ghost is an integral part of both God the Father and God the Son. The language of this Church is Latin; but after 20th century it was replaced by vernacular languages for church services. It practices baptism, communion, absolution, atonement, confession and confirmation. In the sacrament of communion, only bread is offered. It is believed that priests are awarded power through Christ to grant forgiveness during confession. The sick and the dying are anointed with holy oil. Marriages conducted in church demand a commitment to a life-long union, not permitted by the church to be broken and made to another person, except in very special circumstances. The Roman Catholic Church, which is often lavishly decorated as appropriate to the House of God, allows the deployment of statues, pictorial designs and the use of musical instruments.

 

The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, St. Anthony’s Chapel Spain – Santiago de Compostela

The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, St. Anthony’s Chapel
Spain – Santiago de Compostela

Greek - Catholic church, baroque - rococo style, built in 1744-1760. Ukraine – Lviv, St. George Cathedral.

Greek – Catholic church, baroque – rococo style, built in 1744-1760.
Ukraine – Lviv, St. George Cathedral.

 

 

 

İnanç Dosyası 44 | Judaism 12

Ukraine – Lviv, Hasidic Synagogue

Ukraine – Lviv, Hasidic Synagogue

The Synagogue is the place where people of equal standing meet together to pray to their God without any need for an intermediary. The Scrolls of the Law, are kept in a coffer in a cupboard, called the Ark of the Covenant, in the eastern wall of the synagogue. The Holy Scriptures are read from a high pulpit called the Bimah in the centre of the synagogue. The Ashkenazim cover the cupboard with a curtain, called parochet, usually decorated with two pillars which symbolise the two Temples of Jerusalem, and the lion motif, the Jewish symbol of the tribe of Judah. The menorah, is a traditional symbol of the Jewish religion, a seven-branched candelabrum, was kept continuously alight in the Temple of Jerusalem, and so in synagogues, a light is always kept burning to indicate the eternal presence of God. The salaried officials employed in the synagogue are: the Rabbi, religious teacher and leader; the Cantor who chants the liturgy and also leads the congregation in prayer; and the caretaker. However, anyone with a high standing who can read and understand the Holy Scriptures may perform the duties of the Cantor. It is an honour to be called upon to read from the Scrolls, and a pointer, (yad) is used to avoid soiling or damaging the sacred text through handling. In some instances, three men are present during the reading from the Scrolls: one points with the yad, one reads and the third one checks to make sure that the Word of God is read without a mistake. Worshippers face Jerusalem during the service, conduct of which is regarded as the province of males. The Scrolls of the Law are carried from their place and handed to the reader and honour is bestowed through the actions of wrapping these in their covering cloth (in East Europe), replacing them within the coffer (for Sephardim and Oriental Jews), presenting the Tables to the congregation before the reading (for Sephardim and Oriental Jews) and after the reading (for East European Jews).

Turkey – Istanbul, Neve Shalom (Valley of Peace) Synagogue.

Turkey – Istanbul, Neve Shalom (Valley of Peace) Synagogue.

In large synagogues, there are also classrooms, libraries and reception rooms, as in the religious foundations of Islam. The synagogue is more than a place of worship; it is also a community centre or meeting house, where no one is manager, so no one can interfere with anyone else. Worship is not strictly formal, so people can wander around and talk to each other in a relaxed way, and it is customary for friends and neighbours to chat before or after the service. There are no musical instruments in the synagogue.

Jewish men always wear a head-covering during worship in a synagogue; this is a kind of skull-cap, called kippah or yarmulka. Prayers are read in the morning, at noon and at evening, and during the morning service a stoll or shawl, called tallith, is worn. At weekday morning prayers, the reader puts on two black leather prayer boxes, each containing four passages from the Torah,written in Hebrew and Aramaic. These are known as tephillin. One is strapped to the forehead, and one to the upper arm nearest to the heart. In the Liberal and Reform synagogues organ and choir and the practice of worshipping with uncovered heads and without the prayer shawl were established.

Before weekday morning worship a Jew is reading the Holy Book in the synagogue. His tephillins: a black prayer box strapped to the forehead and the black leather straps of the other tephillin, which is on the left upper arm near the heart, are clearly visible.

Before weekday morning worship a Jew is reading the Holy Book in the synagogue. His tephillins: a black prayer box strapped to the forehead and the black leather straps of the other tephillin, which is on the left upper arm near the heart, are clearly visible.

Turkey – Manisa, the ruined city of Sardis (Sardes), the capital of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia, in the 7th and 6th Centuries BCE, the western terminus of the Persian royal road from Susa.  As one of the seven churches of Asia, it was addressed by the author of the Book of Revelation.  In the 10th Century, Sardis was the third most important city in Asia Minor after Ephesus and Smyrna. The excavation of the synagogue in Sardis from the first half of the third century CE was sponsored by Jewish Americans.

Turkey – Manisa, the ruined city of Sardis (Sardes), the capital of the ancient Kingdom of Lydia, in the 7th and 6th Centuries BCE, the western terminus of the Persian royal road from Susa. As one of the seven churches of Asia, it was addressed by the author of the Book of Revelation.
In the 10th Century, Sardis was the third most important city in Asia Minor after Ephesus and Smyrna.
The excavation of the synagogue in Sardis from the first half of the third century CE was sponsored by Jewish Americans.