Kategori arşivi: İnanç Dosyası

Endword

A rejection of and intolerance for another religion is not a clever and civilized path to follow.

One of the things that makes humanity is living all together and side by side. The question of whether that togetherness will be constructive or destructive is a matter that depends largely on the people themselves.Looking at past history, there is plenty of justification for both conditions-side by side or head to head. The memory of centuries of friction and conflict and the pain caused thereby is not easy to erase; but the experience gained from being all together is not easy to acquire either and most of the time has to be gained at the expence of overcoming many different obstacles.

To condemn all other religions beside one’s own is the common attitude of a person who has studied neither the history of other religions nor the history of his own faith.

An undiscriminating standpoint is that all religions contain some good, perhaps equally, at least enough good for their own followers.

An awareness of the range of religious beliefs and practices, and of their role in the lives of the people…. to look for all these forms, and to investigate all the ways in which they influence a culture as a whole.

Faiths do not have to coverge. But the distance between them would diminish and the risk of misunderstanding be less, if they no longer regarded each other, amoral, fanatic, dangerous….

Having the sense of “belonging together” and rethinking of how religions relate to one another is a reason for profound hope.

We should hold the belief that, in the long run, every faith can coexist peacefully.

 

We should look at all people equally. The important thing is not a person’s religion, but whether he is a true human being.

“Even as a tree has a single trunk but many branches and leaves, so there is one true and perfect religion but it becomes many, as it passes through the human medium.”

“Religions are different roads converging upon the same point. What does it matter that we take different roads so long as we reach the same goal?”

“In times to come the people will not judge us by the creed we profess or the label we wear or the slogans we shout but by our work, industry, sacrifice, honesty and purity of character.”

Mahatma Gandhi.

Common Denominators Among Religions 2

The Temple Mount is one of the world’s most sacred spots. It has been identified as the biblical Mount Moriah.  Arabs name it Haram es Sharif, the Noble Courtyard. It was here that Solomon created the First Temple. After its destruction, it was replaced by the Second Temple.  The Wailing Wall is a remnant of the 2nd century CE wall that once supported the Temple Mount. At the center of the Temple Mount stands the Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Sakhra).  The shrine is built over the sacred Rock (Sakhra) on which Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac/Ishmael and from which Mohammed is said to have ascended to Heaven.

The Temple Mount is one of the world’s most sacred spots. It has been identified as the biblical Mount Moriah. Arabs name it Haram es Sharif, the Noble Courtyard.
It was here that Solomon created the First Temple. After its destruction, it was replaced by the Second Temple. The Wailing Wall is a remnant of the 2nd century CE wall that once supported the Temple Mount.
At the center of the Temple Mount stands the Dome of the Rock (Qubbat al-Sakhra). The shrine is built over the sacred Rock (Sakhra) on which Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac/Ishmael and from which Mohammed is said to have ascended to Heaven.

Iran – Esfahan, Jameh Mosque.   The stone mihrab, which indicates the direction of Mecca, is decorated with tiling and calligraphy and also carries the traces of Zoroastrianism. Zoroastrian symbolism played an important part in Iranian art and some aspects of Zoroastrianism still appeal to Iranian Muslims.   It is interesting to note that Persian churches often incorporate Islamic features.

Iran – Esfahan, Jameh Mosque.
The stone mihrab, which indicates the direction of Mecca, is decorated with tiling and calligraphy and also carries the traces of Zoroastrianism. Zoroastrian symbolism played an important part in Iranian art and some aspects of Zoroastrianism still appeal to Iranian Muslims.
It is interesting to note that Persian churches often incorporate Islamic features.

Turkey – Istanbul, Saint Antoine Church.   The Franciscan church burned down in 1660, upon which the Franciscans were given another site. Two centuries later they built themselves this neo-gothic building that throws its doors open to all on Christmas Eve for a mass that has become a traditional event in the life of Istanbul. An ordinary day, two conservative Muslim women visiting the Church.

Turkey – Istanbul, Saint Antoine Church.
The Franciscan church burned down in 1660, upon which the Franciscans were given another site. Two centuries later they built themselves this neo-gothic building that throws its doors open to all on Christmas Eve for a mass that has become a traditional event in the life of Istanbul.
An ordinary day, two conservative Muslim women visiting the Church.

Turkey – Mersin, Mersin City Cemetery. Mersin City Cemetery, a place which for 63 years has given the lie to the issue of conflicting religions. In this cemetery Muslims, Orthodox, Syrian Christians, Catholics and Jews are buried side by side. It is very rarely that we find those who are followers of any of these three religions being interred side-by-side.  It is said that in Helsinki, Finland, there is a similar cemetery, but there the remains of members of different religions do not lie side by side but are buried in separate areas of the graveyard. This rare occurrence in Mersin is a great asset for the city, whose citizens accept the communal graveyard as entirely natural. This cemetery brings together not only the members of the three major religions but also the sects of Christianity. It sends out a common message from all three religions. It is a symbol of peace. When these people have lived together, used the same coffee houses, dined in the same restaurants and shared the same pastures, burying them in separate cemeteries would have been unfair.

Turkey – Mersin, Mersin City Cemetery.
Mersin City Cemetery, a place which for 63 years has given the lie to the issue of conflicting religions. In this cemetery Muslims, Orthodox, Syrian Christians, Catholics and Jews are buried side by side. It is very rarely that we find those who are followers of any of these three religions being interred side-by-side.
It is said that in Helsinki, Finland, there is a similar cemetery, but there the remains of members of different religions do not lie side by side but are buried in separate areas of the graveyard. This rare occurrence in Mersin is a great asset for the city, whose citizens accept the communal graveyard as entirely natural. This cemetery brings together not only the members of the three major religions but also the sects of Christianity. It sends out a common message from all three religions. It is a symbol of peace. When these people have lived together, used the same coffee houses, dined in the same restaurants and shared the same pastures, burying them in separate cemeteries would have been unfair.

Common Denominators Among Religions 1

Creation- Both the Koran and the Bible tell the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. But for Muslims, as for Jews, their “original sin” of disobedience is not passed on to humankind, so they don’t require salvation through the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross, a central doctrine of Christianity. The Bible and the Koran trace a common lineage back to Abraham, who was neither Jew nor Christian, and beyond that to Adam himself. Theologically, both books profess faith in a single God, who creates and sustains the world. Both call humankind to repentance, obedience and purity of life. Both warn of God’s punishment and final judgment of the world. Both imagine a hell and a paradise in the hereafter. Adam and Eve (1539), Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553); angels bow before Adam and Eve in paradise, Mid. 1550s, Safavid period.  Photos: wikimedia.org; www.asia.si.edu

Creation- Both the Koran and the Bible tell the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. But for Muslims, as for Jews, their “original sin” of disobedience is not passed on to humankind, so they don’t require salvation through the sacrifice of Jesus on the cross, a central doctrine of Christianity.
The Bible and the Koran trace a common lineage back to Abraham, who was neither Jew nor Christian, and beyond that to Adam himself. Theologically, both books profess faith in a single God, who creates and sustains the world. Both call humankind to repentance, obedience and purity of life. Both warn of God’s punishment and final judgment of the world. Both imagine a hell and a paradise in the hereafter.
Adam and Eve (1539), Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553); angels bow before Adam and Eve in paradise, Mid. 1550s, Safavid period.
Photos: wikimedia.org; www.asia.si.edu

The Annunciation- In the Koran and the Bible the angel Gabriel is God’s announcer. Through Gabriel, Prophet Mohammed hears the revelations that, for Muslims, is the Word of God made book. In the Bible, Gabriel tells the Virgin Mary she will give birth to Jesus who, for Christians, is the Word of God made flesh. The Annunciation by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1834-1890) and Mohammed with the angel Gabriel from an undated Turkish manuscript. Photos: faso.com; ruhsalenerji.org

The Annunciation- In the Koran and the Bible the angel Gabriel is God’s announcer. Through Gabriel, Prophet Mohammed hears the revelations that, for Muslims, is the Word of God made book. In the Bible, Gabriel tells the Virgin Mary she will give birth to Jesus who, for Christians, is the Word of God made flesh.
The Annunciation by Carl Heinrich Bloch (1834-1890) and Mohammed with the angel Gabriel from an undated Turkish manuscript.
Photos: faso.com; ruhsalenerji.org

The Ascention- In one story extrapolated from a verse in the Koran (surah 17:1), the Prophet Mohammed ascends to the throne of God, the model for the Sufis’ flight of the soul to God. The story of Prophet Mohammed’s mystical nighttime journey from Mecca to Jerusalem, where he adresses an assembly of all previous prophets from Adam to Jesus. Yet another version of this story tells of his subsequent Ascension (mi’raj) from Jerusalem to the throne of Allah, receiving honors along the way from the prophets whom he has superseded. For Sufi mystics, Mohammed’s ascension is the paradigmatic story of the soul’s flight to God. For many Muslim traditionalists, however, the journey was a physical one. In the Bible, Jesus ascends to the Father after he is resurrected from the dead.  The Ascention of Christ, Rembrandt, 1636; Mohammed ascends in a 1583 Turkish text. Photos: www.hymntime.com; www.omurokur.com

The Ascention- In one story extrapolated from a verse in the Koran (surah 17:1), the Prophet Mohammed ascends to the throne of God, the model for the Sufis’ flight of the soul to God. The story of Prophet Mohammed’s mystical nighttime journey from Mecca to Jerusalem, where he adresses an assembly of all previous prophets from Adam to Jesus. Yet another version of this story tells of his subsequent Ascension (mi’raj) from Jerusalem to the throne of Allah, receiving honors along the way from the prophets whom he has superseded. For Sufi mystics, Mohammed’s ascension is the paradigmatic story of the soul’s flight to God. For many Muslim traditionalists, however, the journey was a physical one. In the Bible, Jesus ascends to the Father after he is resurrected from the dead.
The Ascention of Christ, Rembrandt, 1636; Mohammed ascends in a 1583 Turkish text.
Photos: www.hymntime.com; www.omurokur.com

 

 

Comparison Of The Living Religions 4

The Recognition of an Especially Sacred Community

The two most individualistic religions, Jainism and Buddhism, have organized their holy ascetics into a monkish order, Sangha or congregation; but women are regarded as inherently inferior.

Hinduism teaches that its whole hereditary caste system is a sacred institution as compared with the rest of the world, and that as compared among themselves the upper castes are successively the more holy.

Judaism – The synagogue is the place where people of equal standing meet together to pray without any need for an intermediary.

Christianity – The infallibility of the Pope, is a part of Roman Catholic doctrine.

Islam cuts clean across the common ideas of hereditary status, of social superiorities, and even of international exclusiveness by its insistence upon absolute submission before the one omnipotent world potentate, Allah, and upon active joining in his cause.

Turkmenistan, Koneurgenc.

Turkmenistan, Koneurgenc.

The Hope of a Universal Religion

The idea of becoming universal does not occur in the sacred scriptures of Sikhism, Hinduism, Confucianism, Shinto and Taoism; and never to have arisen in their whole history.

In the case of Jainism, Zoroastrianism and Judaism, the hope of becoming universal has been definitely dropped in their history.

In the case of Buddhism, Christianity and Islam, the plan of becoming universal stands clearly commanded in their sacred scriptures, and was acted upon by the founder himself, and has been followed up actively in their later history, so that they have actually become international through missionary effort.

Nepal, Kathmandu.

Nepal, Kathmandu.

The Hopes and Fears of a Future Life

Hinduism and Buddhism teach that the present life is not worth continuing; although the future life is thus for most people a dread necessity, yet by various proper processes a person’s evanescent  miserable individuality may finally be extirpated  altogether.

Jainism teaches that immortality is inherently unavoidable, with ultimate residence in either heaven or in hell.

All four of the religions which originated in India teach the doctrine of transmigration, that by power of the law of Karma, a person’s soul becomes reincarnate after death in some other earthly body, according to his conduct in this present life.

Confucianism regards religion as consisting chiefly of proper ethical conduct, yet offers for the future only a ghostly kind of existence, without hope of heaven, without fear of hell, without consequences of any kind resulting from a person’s present manner of living.

Zoroastrianism and Islam teach an inescapable judgment scene, with rewards and punishments. A paradise with delights for the pious, and a hell with perpetual agonies of physical torments for the unsubmissive unbeliever. Zoroastrianism reduces the sensual features of heaven and hell to a minimum, and finally manages to eliminate all evil, but by means of an apocalyptic ceremonial.

Christianity contains a considerable variety of eschatological belief within the Bible, and also in its subsequent history. However, Christianity has taught uniformly that there will be a sure and just judgment for all mankind, when the good people will enter into the joy of closer fellowship with God, and when the wicked will suffer the terrible consequences of the seperation from God.

 

 

 

Comparison Of The Living Religions 3

photo:www.masterschannel.com

photo:www.masterschannel.com

The Report of Miracles Wrought

Buddha – Crossed the river Ganges instantly without a boat. Appearing and disappearing inexplicably. Healed a sick woman simply by a look. Converted an unbeliever by preaching and by miracle. Fed 500 disciples without previous supplies.

Zoroaster – Performed no miracles in the earliest documents, the Gathas. But many prodigies are reported later, in connection with his birth, his infancy; his curing of diseases, counteraction of wolves and other noxious creatures, liberating of rain, confining of hail, spiders, locusts, and other terrors.

Jesus – While many of the reported miracles in the Bible may be paralleled from the sacred scriptures of other religions, no other historic person in the world has ever been reported to have arisen shortly after his death and burial, and to have continued his customary influence upon his disciples as in the case of Jesus.

Mohammed – Repeatedly disclaimed miracle-working power.

Photo:www.samanyoluhaber.com

Photo:www.samanyoluhaber.com

The Principle of the “Golden Rule”

This teaching concerning the proper method of dealing with other people has been approximated as a summary rule of right conduct in eight different systems of religion and philosophy:

Hinduism – “Do naught to others which, if done to thee, Would cause thee pain: this is the sum of duty.” – Mahabharata, 5:1517.

Buddhism – “A clansman minister to his friends and familiars,….by treating them as he treats himself.” – Sigalovada Sutta, 31.

“Is this deed conducive to my own harm, or to others’ harm, or to that of both?”  Then is this a bad deed, entailing suffering. Such a deed must thou surely not do.” – Majjhima Nikaya, 1:415.

Confucianism – “What you do not want done to yourself, do not do others.” – Analects, 15:23; also 5:11; 12:2.

Taoism – “Recompense injury with kindness.”

“To those who are good to me, Iam good; and to those who are not good to me, I am also good. And thus all get to be good. To those who are sincere with me, I am sincere; and to those who are not sincere with me, I am also sincere. And thus all get to be sincere.”

Zoroastrianism – “Whatever thou dost not approve for thyself, do not approve for any one else. When thou hast acted in this manner, thou act righteous.”

“That nature only is good when it shall not do unto another whatever is not good for its own self.”

“When a good man is beaten through malice, the effort of every one….should continue just as though it happened to himself.”

Judaism – “Take heed to thyself, my child, in all thy works; and be discreet in all thy behavior. And what thou thyself hatest, do to no man.” – Tobit, 4:14-15.

“Whatsoever thou wouldest that men should not do unto thee, do not do that to them.” – Babylonian Shabbath, 31a.

Greek Philosophy – “Do not do to others what you would not wish to suffer yourself.” – Socrates.

“Treat your friends as you would want them to treat you.”- Aristotle.

“Do not do what any one is vexed to suffer.”- Philo.

Christianity – “All things therefore whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, even so do ye also unto them.” – Matthew.

“As ye would that men should do to you, do ye alsoto them likewise.” – Luke.

Islam ––  “Hold to forgiveness; command what is right; But turn away from the ignorant.” – Surah Al-Araf, 7:199.

“”O my son! establish regular prayer, enjoin what is just, and forbid what is wrong: and bear with patient constancy whatever betide thee; for this is firmness (of purpose) in (the conduct of) affairs.”

-       Surah Luqman, 31:17.

“Twice will they be given their reward, for that they have persevered, that they avert Evil with Good, and that they spend (in charity) out of what We have given them.” – Surah Al-Qasas, 28:54.